Publications of Schneider, C.Q.

Wagemann C, Schneider CQ. Transparency Standards in Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Qualitative {&} Multi-Method Research Newsletter. 2015;13:38-42.
Schneider CQ. Makro-Qualitative Verfahren. In: Kollmorgen R, Merkel W, Wagener H-J, editors. Handbuch der Transformationsforschung. Berlin: Springer; 2014. p. 221-9.

Forms of Welfare Capitalism and Education-Based Participatory Inequality

Scholars studying democracy are just beginning to investigate the specifically political consequences of rising socio-economic inequalities. This paper analyses whether the degree of political inequality between social groups is shaped by features of the welfare capitalist system. Specifically, we hypothesize that more labour protection and social support decrease participatory inequality via more evenly distributed resources and engagement between high- and low educated citizens. Our regression analyses combining micro- and macro-level data from 37 capitalist democracies over the past 20 years provide evidence that some protective and supportive elements of welfare capitalism reduce education-based participatory inequality. Our fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis identifies three functionally equivalent types of welfare capitalism that all produce low participatory inequality via increased protection, support or both. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that the mechanisms behind this link are, indeed, a more equal distribution of resources and engagement across low- and high educated citizens.

Schneider CQ. Sind Demokratien besser als Autokratien? In: Oschema K, von Luxburg U, Helbling M, editors. Wissenschaft 2014. Ein Kalender der Ambivalenzen. Thorbecke; 2013. p. 72-3.

Combining QCA and Process Tracing in Set-Theoretic Multi-Method Research

Set-theoretic methods and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in particular are case-based methods. There are, however, only few guidelines on how to combine them with qualitative case studies. Contributing to the literature on multi-method research (MMR), we offer the first comprehensive elaboration of principles for the integration of QCA and case studies with a special focus on case selection. We show that QCA's reliance on set-relational causation in terms of necessity and sufficiency has important consequences for the choice of cases. Using real world data for both crisp-set and fuzzy-set QCA, we show what typical and deviant cases are in QCA-based MMR. In addition, we demonstrate how to select cases for comparative case studies aiming to discern causal mechanisms and address the puzzles behind deviant cases. Finally, we detail the implications of modifying the set-theoretic cross-case model in the light of case-study evidence. Following the principles developed in this article should increase the inferential leverage of set-theoretic MMR.

Schneider CQ, Wagemann C. Are We All Set? Newsletter of the APSA Organized Section for Qualitative & Multi-Method Research. 2013;11(Spring):5-8.
Schneider CQ, Wagemann C. Fuzzy Set are Sets: A Reply to Goertz and Mahoney. Newsletter of the APSA Organized Section for Qualitative & Multi-Method Research. 2013;11(Spring):19-22.
Schneider CQ. Doktorandenprogramme. In: von Klatt M, Koller S, editors. Lehre als Abenteuer. Anregungen für eine bessere Hochschulausbildung. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag; 2012. p. 59-66.
Schneider CQ. Internationalisierung. In: von Klatt M, Koller S, editors. Lehre als Abenteuer. Anregungen für eine bessere Hochschulausbildung. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag; 2012. p. 120-4.

Comparative Politics in Central and Eastern Europe: Mapping Publications Over the Past 20 Years

This article offers a new empirical perspective on the state of Comparative Politics (CP) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We present findings on the authors, methods, and epistemology of CP publications in the most relevant journals from eleven countries in the region. The major finding is that CP is rather marginal in CEE Political Science. Furthermore, CP articles predominantly focus on the authors’ country of origin, use off-the-shelf data, apply mostly qualitative data analysis techniques, and rarely take a historical perspective.

Does set-relational causation fit into a potential outcomes framework? An Assessment of Gerring’s Proposal

One of John Gerring’s aims in his intriguing treatment of social science methodology is the development of a unified account for causal inference on the basis of the potential outcomes (PO) framework (Gerring, John (2012): Social Science Methodology: A Unified Framework. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.). Over the past two decades, the PO framework has become central in quantitative analyses. In qualitative research, in contrast, set theory and set-relational (SR) forms of causation and empirical research have started to play an ever more important role. According to Gerring, the PO account is the more general framework and is able to accommodate SR causation such as necessity and sufficiency. In our contribution to this symposium, we discuss the viability of Gerring’s proposal on how to perform SR research on the basis of the PO framework. Most importantly, we show that the suggested procedure can produce false negatives – indicating the absence of a set relation when, in fact, one exists – and false positives – suggesting the presence of a set relation when there is none. In the concluding section, we detail that if the PO and SR frameworks are truly compatible, all of these SR features must be transposed into the PO framework.

Schneider CQ. Issues in Measuring Political Regimes. CEU, Center for the Study of Imperfections in Democracies; 2010.
Schneider CQ, Wagemann C. Standards guter Praxis in Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) und Fuzzy-Sets. In: Pickel G, hans-Joachim Lauth, Jahn D, editors. Neue Entwicklungen und Anwendungen auf dem Gebiet der Methoden der vergleichenden Politik- und Sozialwissenschaft. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag; 2009. p. 387-412.
Schneider CQ. Opposition in Transition. Does Unity Bring Dictators Down? A QCA-Reanalysis of Howerd&Roessler's Study of Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes. In: “Stand und Zukunft der Vergleichenden Politikwissenschaft”, organized by the Deutsche Vereinigung für Politische Wissenschaft (DVPW). Delmenhorst; 2007.
Schneider CQ. Qualitative Comparative Analysis und Fuzzy Sets. In: Gschwend T, Schindler D, Schnapp K-U, editors. Methoden der Politikwissenschaft: Neuere qualitative und quantitative Analyseverfahren. Baden-Baden: Nomos; 2006. p. 273-85.
Schneider CQ. Patterns of consolidated democracies. Europe and Latin America compared. Florence: Thesis defended at the Department of Political and Social Sciences, European University Institute; 2004.
Schneider CQ. The fuzzy-set/QCA two-step approach to middle-range theories. Prepared for delivery at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 2 - September 5, 2004, Chicago; 2004.
Wagemann C, Schneider CQ. Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fs/QCA): ein Zwei-Stufen-Modul. In: Pickel G, hans-Joachim Lauth, Jahn D, editors. Vergleichende politikwissenschaftliche Methoden – Neue Entwicklungen und Diskussionen. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag; 2003. p. 105-34.
Schneider CQ. Korruption und Vertrauen in Implementationsinstitutionen: ein Vergleich Lateinamerikas mit konsolidierten Demokratien. In: hans-Joachim Lauth, Pickel G, editors. Rechtsstaat und Demokratie. Theoretische und empirische Studien zum Recht in der Demokratie. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag; 2001. p. 275-98.