Publications of Sara Gustafsson

From Tool Technique to Tool Practice. Experiences from the project SEAMLESS: Strategic Environmental Assessment and Management in Local Authorities in Sweden

The aim of SEAMLESS was to explore conceptual foundations as well as feasibility of establishing better operational and methodological linkages between tools for strategic environmental planning, assessment and management, especially between SEA (according to the EG directive 2001/42/EC and EMS based on the main principles of ISO 14001/EMAS) in local authorities. The concepts tool technique and tool practice were used for explaining and analyzing the preconditions, possibilities and difficulties in integrating SEA and EMS. Tool technique addresses technical aspects of the tools use and integration, neglecting the context in which it is to be used. It is important to understand the context, since it influences the feasibility of tool integration; therefore a tool practice perspective is needed. Tool integration is another important concept in the SEAMLESS project, where three different stages of integration were identified: formal integration, learning integration and interactive integration. A too strong focus on formal integration (which is closely connected to tool technique) might lead to that potential linkages are not realized. Too much focus on interactive integration might lead to complex resource demanding tool causing ineffectiveness and tool fatigue.